Home Forums CNC Technology What are the types of motion control methods of CNC machine?

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    Motion control exists in many automation equipment, such as robot technology, numerical control machine tools and kinematics, among which motion control in kinematics is usually simpler. Motion control is an important part of industrial robots and CNC machine tools, but in these cases, it is more complex than when used with special machines with generally simpler kinematics. The latter is commonly referred to as universal motion control.

    Motion control is mainly used in packaging, textile, assembly industry, printing and semiconductor production. The hardware of motion control machine usually consists of drive system, motor, computer, PLC or programmable logic controller running program and amplifier.

    Motion control mode of NC machine tool
    Fast motion
    Fast motion this type of control mode is used to command the NC machine tool to run at the fastest speed. It is used to minimize non production time in the processing cycle. Common uses of rapid motion include positioning and moving the tool to and from the cutting position, moving to remove jigs and other obstructions, and any non cutting motion typically during the procedure. Most CNC machine tools use G00 to start fast motion. In the G00 command, the end point of the motion is given.

    Linear motion
    This type of motion allows the programmer to command perfect linear motion, as we discussed earlier when we discussed linear interpolation. This type of motion also allows the programmer to specify the motion rate (feed rate) to be used during the motion. Linear motion can be used at any time when linear cutting motion is required, including drilling, turning straight diameter, end face or taper, and milling straight surface.

    Circular motion
    This type of motion makes the CNC machine tool move in the form of a circular path. As discussed earlier when we introduced arc interpolation, this type of joint is used to generate radius during machining.

    Two G codes are used for circular motion. G02 is usually used to specify clockwise motion, while G03 is used to specify counterclockwise motion. To evaluate which one to use, the operator only needs to look at the motion from the same angle that the CNC machine looks at the motion. For example, if a circular motion is performed in the XY direction in the machining center, the motion can be viewed from the favorable position of the spindle. If the turning center performs circular motion in the XZ direction, the motion can be viewed from above the spindle.

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